Drawing graphs {igraph} | R Documentation |

The common bits of the three plotting functions
`plot.igraph`

, `tkplot`

and `rglplot`

are discussed in
this manual page

There are currently three different functions in the igraph package which can draw graph in various ways:

`plot.igraph`

does simple non-interactive 2D plotting to R devices.
Actually it is an implementation of the `plot`

generic function,
so you can write `plot(graph)`

instead of
`plot.igraph(graph)`

. As it used the standard R devices it
supports every output format for which R has an output device. The
list is quite impressing: PostScript, PDF files, XFig files, SVG
files, JPG, PNG and of course you can plot to the screen as well using
the default devices, or the good-looking anti-aliased Cairo device.
See `plot.igraph`

for some more information.

`tkplot`

does interactive 2D plotting using the `tcltk`

package. It can only handle graphs of moderate size, a thousend
vertices is probably already too many. Some parameters of the plotted
graph can be changed interactively after issuing the `tkplot`

command: the position, color and size of the vertices and the color
and width of the edges. See `tkplot`

for details.

`rglplot`

is an experimental function to draw graphs in 3D
using OpenGL. See `rglplot`

for some more information.

Please also check the examples below.

There are three ways to give values to the parameters described below, in section 'Parameters'. We give these three ways here in the order of their precedence.

The first method is to supply named arguments to the plotting commands:
`plot.igraph`

, `tkplot`

or
`rglplot`

. Parameters for vertices start with prefix
‘`vertex.`

’, parameters for edges have prefix
‘`edge.`

’, and global parameters have now prefix. Eg. the
color of the vertices can be given via argument `vertex.color`

,
whereas `edge.color`

sets the color of the edges. `layout`

gives the layout of the graphs.

The second way is to assign vertex, edge and graph attributes to the
graph. These attributes have now prefix, ie. the color of the vertices
is taken from the `color`

vertex attribute and the color of the
edges from the `color`

edge attribute. The layout of the graph is
given by the `layout`

graph attribute. (Always assuming that the
corresponding command argument is not present.) Setting vertex and
edge attributes are handy if you want to assign a given ‘look’
to a graph, attributes are saved with the graph is you save it with
`save`

or in GraphML format with
`write.graph`

, so the graph will have the same look after
loading it again.

If a parameter is not given in the command line, and the corresponding
vertex/edge/graph attribute is also missing then the general igraph
parameters handled by `igraph.par`

are also
checked. Vertex parameters have prefix ‘`vertex.`

’, edge
parameters are prefixed with ‘`edge.`

’, general parameters
like `layout`

are prefixed with ‘`plot`

’.
These parameters are useful if you want
all or most of your graphs to have the same look, vertex size, vertex
color, etc. Then you don't need to set these at every plotting, and
you also don't need to assign vertex/edge attributes to every graph.

If the value of a parameter is not specified by any of the three ways described here, its default valued is used, as given in the source code.

Different parameters can have different type, eg. vertex colors can be
given as a character vector with color names, or as an integer vector
with the color numbers from the current palette. Different types are
valid for different parameters, this is discussed in detail in the
next section. It is however always true that the parameter can always
be a function object in which it will be called with the graph as its
single argument to get the “proper” value of the parameter.
(If the function returns another function object that will *not*
be called again...)

Vertex parameters first, note that the ‘`vertex.`

’ prefix
needs to be added if they are used as an argument or when setting via
`igraph.par`

. The value of the parameter may be scalar
valid for every vertex or a vector with a separate value for each
vertex. (Shorter vectors are recycled.)

- size
- The size of the vertex, a numeric scalar or vector, in
the latter case each vertex sizes may differ. This vertex sizes
are scaled in order have about the same size of vertices for a
given value for all three plotting commands. It does not need to
be an integer number.
The default value is 15. This is big enough to place short labels on vertices.

- size2
- The “other” size of the vertex, for some vertex
shapes. For the various rectangle shapes this gives the height of
the vertices, whereas
`size`

gives the width. It is ignored by shapes for which the size can be specified with a single number.The default is 15.

- color
- The fill color of the vertex. If it is numeric then
the current palette is used, see
`palette`

. If it is a character vector then it may either contain named colors or RGB specified colors with three or four bytes. All strings starting with ‘`#`

’ are assumed to be RGB color specifications. It is possible to mix named color and RGB colors. Note that`tkplot`

ignores the fourth byte (alpha channel) in the RGB color specification.The default value is “

`SkyBlue2`

”. - frame.color
- The color of the frame of the vertices, the same
formats are allowed as for the fill color.
By default it is “black”.

- shape
- The shape of the vertex, currently
“
`circle`

”, “`square`

”, “`csquare`

”, “`rectangle`

”, “`crectangle`

”, “`vrectangle`

” and “`none`

” are supported, and only by the`plot.igraph`

command. “`none`

” does not draw the vertices at all, although vertex label are plotted (if given). See`igraph.vertex.shapes`

for details about vertex shapes.By default vertices are drawn as circles.

- label
- The vertex labels. They will be converted to
character. Specify
`NA`

to omit vertex labels.The default vertex labels are the vertex ids.

- label.family
- The font family to be used for vertex labels.
As different plotting commands can used different fonts, they
interpret this parameter different ways. The basic notation is,
however, understood by both
`plot.igraph`

and`tkplot`

.`rglplot`

does not support fonts at all right now, it ignores this parameter completely.For

`plot.igraph`

this parameter is simply passed to`text`

as argument`family`

.For

`tkplot`

some conversion is performed. If this parameter is the name of an exixting Tk font, then that font is used and the`label.font`

and`label.cex`

parameters are ignored complerely. If it is one of the base families (serif, sans, mono) then Times, Helvetica or Courier fonts are used, there are guaranteed to exist on all systems. For the ‘symbol’ base family we used the symbol font is available, otherwise the first font which has ‘symbol’ in its name. If the parameter is not a name of the base families and it is also not a named Tk font then we pass it to`tkfont.create`

and hope the user knows what she is doing. The`label.font`

and`label.cex`

parameters are also passed to`tkfont.create`

in this case.The default value is ‘serif’.

- label.font
- The font within the font family to use for the
vertex labels. It is interpreted the same way as the the
`font`

graphical parameter: 1 is plain text, 2 is bold face, 3 is italic, 4 is bold and italic and 5 specifies the symbol font.For

`plot.igraph`

this parameter is simply passed to`text`

.For

`tkplot`

, if the`label.family`

parameter is not the name of a Tk font then this parameter is used to set whether the newly created font should be italic and/or boldface. Otherwise it is ignored.For

`rglplot`

it is ignored.The default value is 1.

- label.cex
- The font size for vertex labels. It is interpreted
as a multiplication factor of some device-dependent base font
size.
For

`plot.igraph`

it is simply passed to`text`

as argument`cex`

.For

`tkplot`

it is multiplied by 12 and then used as the`size`

argument for`tkfont.create`

. The base font is thus 12 for tkplot.For

`rglplot`

it is ignored.The default value is 1.

- label.dist
- The distance of the label from the center of the vertex. If it is 0
then the label is centered on the vertex. If it is 1 then the
label is displayed beside the vertex.
The default value is 0.

- label.degree
- It defines the position of the vertex labels, relative to the
center of the vertices. It is interpreted as an angle in radian,
zero means ‘to the right’, and ‘
`pi`

’ means to the left, up is`-pi/2`

and down is`pi/2`

.The default value is

`-pi/4`

. - label.color
- The color of the labels, see the
`color`

vertex parameter discussed earlier for the possible values.The default value is

`black`

.

Edge parameters require to add the ‘`edge.`

’ prefix when
used as arguments or set by `igraph.par`

. The edge
parameters:

- color
- The color of the edges, see the
`color`

vertex parameter for the possible values.By default this parameter is

`darkgrey`

. - width
- The width of the edges.
The default value is 1.

- arrow.size
- The size of the arrows. Currently this is a
constant, so it is the same for every edge. If a vector is
submitted then only the first element is used, ie. if this is
taken from an edge attribute then only the attribute of the first
edge is used for all arrows. This will likely change in the future.
The default value is 1.

- arrow.width
- The width of the arrows. Currently this is a
constant, so it is the same for every edge. If a vector is
submitted then only the first element is used, ie. if this is
taken from an edge attribute then only the attribute of the first
edge is used for all arrows. This will likely change in the future.
This argument is currently only used by

`plot.igraph`

.The default value is 1, which gives the same width as before this option appeared in igraph.

- lty
- The line type for the edges. Almost the same format is
accepted as for the standard graphics
`par`

, 0 and “blank” mean no edges, 1 and “solid” are for solid lines, the other possible values are: 2 (“dashed”), 3 (“dotted”), 4 (“dotdash”), 5 (“longdash”), 6 (“twodash”).`tkplot`

also accepts standard Tk line type strings, it does not however support “blank” lines, instead of type ‘0’ type ‘1’, ie. solid lines will be drawn.This argument is ignored for

`rglplot`

.The default value is type 1, a solid line.

- label
- The edge labels. They will be converted to
character. Specify
`NA`

to omit edge labels.Edge labels are omitted by default.

- label.family
- Font family of the edge labels. See the vertex parameter with the same name for the details.
- label.font
- The font for the edge labels. See the corresponding vertex parameter discussed earlier for details.
- label.cex
- The font size for the edge labels, see the corresponding vertex parameter for details.
- label.color
- The color of the edge labels, see the
`color`

vertex parameters on how to specify colors. - arrow.mode
- This parameter can be used to specify for which
edges should arrows be drawn. If this parameter is given by the
user (in either of the three ways) then it specifies which edges
will have forward, backward arrows, or both, or no arrows at all.
As usual, this parameter can be a vector or a scalar value.
It can be an integer or character type. If it is integer then 0
means no arrows, 1 means backward arrows, 2 is for forward arrows
and 3 for both. If it is a character vector then “<” and
“<-” specify backward, “>” and “->” forward
arrows and “<>” and “<->” stands for both arrows.
All other values mean no arrows, perhaps you should use “-”
or “–” to specify no arrows.
Hint: this parameter can be used as a ‘cheap’ solution for drawing “mixed” graphs: graphs in which some edges are directed some are not. If you want do this, then please create a

*directed*graph, because as of version 0.4 the vertex pairs in the edge lists can be swapped in undirected graphs.By default, no arrows will be drawn for undirected graphs, and for directed graphs, an arrow will be drawn for each edge, according to its direction. This is not very surprising, it is the expected behavior.

- loop.angle
- Gives the angle in radian for plotting loop
edges. See the
`label.dist`

vertex parameter to see how this is interpreted.The default value is 0.

- loop.angle2
- Gives the second angle in radian for plotting
loop edges. This is only used in 3D,
`loop.angle`

is enough in 2D.The default value is 0.

Other parameters:

- layout
- Either a function or a numeric
matrix. It specifies how the vertices will be placed on the plot.
If it is a numeric matrix, then the matrix has to have one line for each vertex, specifying its coordinates. The matrix should have at least two columns, for the

`x`

and`y`

coordinates, and it can also have third column, this will be the`z`

coordinate for 3D plots and it is ignored for 2D plots.If a two column matrix is given for the 3D plotting function

`rglplot`

then the third column is assumed to be 1 for each vertex.If

`layout`

is a function, this function will be called with the`graph`

as the single parameter to determine the actual coordinates. The function should return a matrix with two or three columns. For the 2D plots the third column is ignored.The default value is

`layout.random`

, ie. a function returning with 2D random placement. - margin
- The amount of empty space below, over, at the left and
right of the plot, it is a numeric vector of length four. Usually
values between 0 and 0.5 are meaningful, but negative values are
also possible, that will make the plot zoom in to a part of the
graph. If it is shorter than four then it is recycled.
`rglplot`

does not support this parameter, as it can zoom in and out the graph in a more flexible way.Its default value is 0.

- rescale
- Logical constant, whether to rescale the coordinates
to the [-1,1]x[-1,1](x[-1,1]) interval. This parameter is not
implemented for
`tkplot`

.Defaults to

`TRUE`

, the layout will be rescaled. - asp
- A numeric constant, it gives the
`asp`

parameter for`plot`

, the aspect ratio. Supply 0 here if you don't want to give an aspect ratio. It is ignored by`tkplot`

and`rglplot`

.Defaults to 1.

- frame
- Boolean, whether to plot a frame around the graph. It
is ignored by
`tkplot`

and`rglplot`

.Defaults to

`FALSE`

.

Gabor Csardi csardi@rmki.kfki.hu

`plot.igraph`

, `tkplot`

,
`rglplot`

, `igraph.par`

## Not run: # plotting a simple ring graph, all default parameters, except the layout g <- graph.ring(10) g$layout <- layout.circle plot(g) tkplot(g) rglplot(g) # plotting a random graph, set the parameters in the command arguments g <- barabasi.game(100) plot(g, layout=layout.fruchterman.reingold, vertex.size=4, vertex.label.dist=0.5, vertex.color="red", edge.arrow.size=0.5) # plot a random graph, different color for each component g <- erdos.renyi.game(100, 1/100) comps <- clusters(g)$membership colbar <- rainbow(max(comps)+1) V(g)$color <- colbar[comps+1] plot(g, layout=layout.fruchterman.reingold, vertex.size=5, vertex.label=NA) # plot communities in a graph g <- graph.full(5) g <- add.edges(g, c(0,5, 0,10, 5,10)) com <- spinglass.community(g, spins=5) V(g)$color <- com$membership+1 g <- set.graph.attribute(g, "layout", layout.kamada.kawai(g)) plot(g, vertex.label.dist=1.5) # draw a bunch of trees, fix layout igraph.par("plot.layout", layout.reingold.tilford) plot(graph.tree(20, 2)) plot(graph.tree(50, 3), vertex.size=3, vertex.label=NA) tkplot(graph.tree(50, 2), mode="undirected", vertex.size=10, vertex.color="green") ## End(Not run)

[Package *igraph* version 0.5.1 Index]