layout {igraph} | R Documentation |

Some simple and not so simple functions determining the placement of the vertices for drawing a graph.

layout.random(graph, params, dim=2) layout.circle(graph, params) layout.sphere(graph, params) layout.fruchterman.reingold(graph, ..., dim=2, verbose=igraph.par("verbose"), params) layout.kamada.kawai(graph, ..., dim=2, verbose=igraph.par("verbose"), params) layout.spring(graph, ..., params) layout.reingold.tilford(graph, ..., params) layout.fruchterman.reingold.grid(graph, ..., verbose=igraph.par("verbose"), params) layout.lgl(graph, ..., params) layout.graphopt(graph, ..., verbose = igraph.par("verbose"), params = list()) layout.mds(graph, d=shortest.paths(graph), ...) layout.svd(graph, d=shortest.paths(graph), ...) layout.norm(layout, xmin = NULL, xmax = NULL, ymin = NULL, ymax = NULL, zmin = NULL, zmax = NULL)

`graph` |
The graph to place. |

`params` |
The list of function dependent parameters. |

`dim` |
Numeric constant, either 2 or 3. Some functions are able to generate 2d and 3d layouts as well, supply this argument to change the default behavior. |

`...` |
Function dependent parameters, this is an alternative
notation to the `params` argument. |

`verbose` |
Logial constant, whether to show a progress bar while calculating the layout. |

`d` |
The matrix used for multidimansional scaling. By default it is the distance matrix of the graph. |

`layout` |
A matrix with two or three columns, the layout to normalize. |

`xmin,xmax` |
The limits for the first coordinate, if one of them
or both are `NULL` then no normalization is performed along
this direction. |

`ymin,ymax` |
The limits for the second coordinate, if one of them
or both are `NULL` then no normalization is performed along
this direction. |

`zmin,zmax` |
The limits for the third coordinate, if one of them
or both are `NULL` then no normalization is performed along
this direction. |

These functions calculate the coordinates of the vertices for a graph usually based on some optimality criterion.

`layout.random`

simply places the vertices randomly on a
square. It has no parameters.

`layout.circle`

places the vertices on a unit circle
equidistantly. It has no paramaters.

`layout.sphere`

places the vertices (approximately) uniformly on
the surface of a sphere, this is thus a 3d layout. It is not clear
however what “uniformly on a sphere” means.

`layout.fruchterman.reingold`

uses a force-based algorithm
proposed by Fruchterman and Reingold, see references. Parameters and
their default values:

- niter
- Numeric, the number of iterations to perform (500).
- coolexp
- Numeric, the cooling exponent for the simulated annealing (3).
- maxdelta
- Maximum change (
`vcount(graph)`

). - area
- Area parameter (
`vcount(graph)^2`

). - repulserad
- Cancellation radius (
`area`

*vcount(graph)). - weights
- A vector giving edge weights or
`NULL`

. If not`NULL`

then the attraction along the edges will be multiplied by the given edge weights (`NULL`

).

This function was ported from the SNA package.

`layout.kamada.kawai`

is another force based algorithm.
Parameters and default values:

- niter
- Number of iterations to perform (1000).
- sigma
- Sets the base standard deviation of position change proposals (vcount(graph)/4).
- initemp
- The initial temperature (10).
- coolexp
- The cooling exponent (0.99).
- kkconst
- Sets the Kamada-Kawai vertex attraction constant (vcount(graph)**2).

This function performs very well for connected graphs, but it gives poor results for unconnected ones. This function was ported from the SNA package.

`layout.spring`

is a spring embedder algorithm.
Parameters and default values:

- mass
- The vertex mass (in ‘quasi-kilograms’). (Defaults to 0.1.)
- equil
- The equilibrium spring extension (in ‘quasi-meters’). (Defaults to 1.)
- k
- The spring coefficient (in ‘quasi-Newtons per quasi-meter’). (Defaults to 0.001.)
- repeqdis
- The point at which repulsion (if employed) balances out the spring extension force (in ‘quasi-meters’). (Defaults to 0.1.)
- kfr
- The base coefficient of kinetic friction (in ‘quasi-Newton quasi-kilograms’). (Defaults to 0.01.)
- repulse
- Should repulsion be used? (Defaults to FALSE.)

This function was ported from the SNA package.

`layout.reingold.tilford`

generates a tree-like layout, so it is
mainly for trees. Parameters and default values:

- root
- The id of the root vertex, defaults to 0.
- circular
- Logical scalar, whether to plot the tree in a
circular fashion, defaults to
`FALSE`

.

`layout.fruchterman.reingold.grid`

is similar to
`layout.fruchterman.reingold`

but repelling force is calculated
only between vertices that are closer to each other than a limit, so
it is faster. Patameters and default values:

- niter
- Numeric, the number of iterations to perform (500).
- maxdelta
- Maximum change for one vertex in one iteration. (The number of vertices in the graph.)
- area
- The area of the surface on which the vertices are placed. (The square of the number of vertices.)
- coolexp
- The cooling exponent of the simulated annealing (1.5).
- repulserad
- Cancellation radius for the repulsion (the
`area`

times the number of vertices). - cellsize
- The size of the cells for the grid. When calculating
the repulsion forces between vertices only vertices in the same or
neighboring grid cells are taken into account (the fourth root of
the number of
`area`

.

`layout.lgl`

is for large connected graphs, it is similar to the
layout generator of the Large Graph Layout software
(http://bioinformatics.icmb.utexas.edu/lgl). Parameters and
default values:

- maxiter
- The maximum number of iterations to perform (150).
- maxdelta
- The maximum change for a vertex during an iteration (the number of vertices).
- area
- The area of the surface on which the vertices are placed (square of the number of vertices).
- coolexp
- The cooling exponent of the simulated annealing (1.5).
- repulserad
- Cancellation radius for the repulsion (the
`area`

times the number of vertices). - cellsize
- The size of the cells for the grid. When calculating
the repulsion forces between vertices only vertices in the same or
neighboring grid cells are taken into account (the fourth root of
the number of
`area`

. - root
- The id of the vertex to place at the middle of the layout. The default value is -1 which means that a random vertex is selected.

`layout.graphopt`

is a port of the graphopt layout algorithm by
Michael Schmuhl. graphopt version 0.4.1 was rewritten in C and the
support for layers was removed (might be added later) and a code was a
bit reorganized to avoid some unneccessary steps is the node charge
(see below) is zero.

graphopt uses physical analogies for defining attracting and repelling forces among the vertices and then the physical system is simulated until it reaches an equilibrium. (There is no simulated annealing or anything like that, so a stable fixed point is not guaranteed.)

See also http://www.schmuhl.org/graphopt/ for the original graphopt.

Parameters and default values:

- niter
- Integer scalar, the number of iterations to perform.
Should be a couple of hundred in general. If you have a large graph
then you might want to only do a few iterations and then check the
result. If it is not good enough you can feed it in again in
the
`start`

argument. The default value is 500. - charge
- The charge of the vertices, used to calculate electric repulsion. The default is 0.001.
- mass
- The mass of the vertices, used for the spring forces. The default is 30.
- spring.length
- The length of the springs, an integer number. The default value is zero.
- spring.constant
- The spring constant, the default value is one.
- max.sa.movement
- Real constant, it gives the maximum amount of movement allowed in a single step along a single axis. The default value is 5.
- start
- If given, then it should be a matrix with two columns and one line for each vertex. This matrix will be used as starting positions for the algorithm. If not given, then a random starting matrix is used.

`layout.mds`

uses metric multidimensional scaling for generating
the coordinates. This function does not have the usual `params`

argument. It can just take a single argument, the distance matrix used
for multidimensional scaling. This function generates the layout
separately for each graph component and then merges them via
`layout.merge`

. `layout.mds`

is an *experimental*
function currently.

`layout.svd`

is a currently *experimental* layout function based on
singular value decomposition. It does not have the usual `params`

argument, but take a single argument, the distance matrix of the
graph. This function generates the layout separately for each graph
component and then merges them via `layout.merge`

.

`layout.norm`

normalizes a layout, it linearly transforms each
coordinate separately to fit into the given limits.

`layout.drl`

is another force-driven layout generator, it is
suitable for quite large graphs. See `layout.drl`

for
details.

All these functions return a numeric matrix with at least two columns and the same number of lines as the number of vertices.

Gabor Csardi csardi@rmki.kfki.hu

Fruchterman, T.M.J. and Reingold, E.M. (1991). Graph Drawing by
Force-directed Placement. *Software - Practice and Experience*,
21(11):1129-1164.

Kamada, T. and Kawai, S. (1989). An Algorithm for Drawing General
Undirected Graphs. *Information Processing Letters*, 31(1):7-15.

Reingold, E and Tilford, J (1981). Tidier drawing of trees.
*IEEE Trans. on Softw. Eng.*, SE-7(2):223–228.

`layout.drl`

, `plot.igraph`

, `tkplot`

g <- graph.ring(10) layout.random(g) layout.kamada.kawai(g)

[Package *igraph* version 0.5.1 Index]